Pun In Sanskrit Literature – A New Approach

The book under review titled Pun In Sanskrit Literature – A New Approach is a fantastic book.

All Sanskrit lovers and pun lovers should read this book without fail.

The book was first published by Mysore University, India in 1982. The author Gurupad K Hegde is a great scholar and has written this book after intense study of Sanskrit literature for many years.

The book has nine chapters.

The first chapter deals with the pun as alankara in Sanskrit literature.

The origin of pun starts with the first kavya (adi kavya) of the world written by the world’s first poet, sage Valmiki.

The origin of Ramayana is from a sloka of pun! The verse starts with ‘ma nisada’ is a curse on the hunter that he should never attain salvation for he killed the beautiful krauncha bird which was absorbed in love. And wonderfully, the verse also means that the great Lord Vishnu may attain a position for ever as he killed the demon Ravana and Valin.

The author describes in detail the root cause of the concept of fun, the nature of the words in pun and objects of the pun in the second chapter.

The author gives numerous examples to explain the figurative combinations in the great and beautiful language Sanskrit in chapter three.

Chapter four of the book deals with the role of pun in classical Sanskrit literature.The author indicates Shakespeare’s lines in Othello (III-2) The word ‘lies’ in the conversation of Desdemona and Clown is a witty use of pun to mean ‘lodging’ as well as telling a lie!

The great poets Sri Harsha, Bhavaputi,Asvaghosa,Bharavi,Magha,Dandin have used Slesha or pun in their works.

And it is to be noted that the only language which has kavyas where two or more stories are narrated throughout the full length of a poem is Sanskrit. Thus we have kavyas which describes Ramayana and Mahabharata in the same verse!

Needless to say that the author has dealt the Mahabharata kuta slokas which means the slokas with knots!

While the fifth chapter deals with functional pun and the sixth chapter deals with perceptional pun and the seventh with situational pun! The eighth chapter of the book deals with the impact of pun in iconography.

The author concludes in his concluding chapter that pun is everywhere starting from vedic literature to the modern literature which gives the experiences of day to day business of life.

Over three hundred selected verses are given as examples to understand the pun in Sanskrit literature.

On completing the book we are wonderstruck with the author’s deep reading as well as with the vastness of the wonderful t Sanskrit literature!

Index of subject and index of 300 verses will be useful to the readers.

Finally, we may pray that more such books should come to enlighten us!

Making Your Purpose Your Business Step #2- Getting From Point A to Point B

In my previous article, Step 1, your challenge for the month was to research where your passion lies. Based on your research you might have discovered that self investigation can lead us to two places; either we find out our answer or we realize we need to ask more questions to get that answer.

Finding your purpose takes great effort, but can be effortless all at the same time. It seems that once we begin pursuing that in which we were intended, everything falls into place. But the matter we have to realize is that time plays a great role.

Sometimes people are over night successes and others have to nurture their purpose for years to come. Keep in mind though, as long as you enjoy what it is you are pursuing and the motivation you have is strong, than that alone will sustain your ambition and provide your passion longevity.

Remember you are making a commitment to yourself. You should treat that commitment the same way you would treat a marriage or devoted friendship. The key is to value yourself the way you value others. Having a good attitude from the very beginning can make the difference and not only affect your career, but the people around you. Self dedication does show and the commitment will be reflected in your professional life and relationships.

Assuming you now have a general idea of what you would like to do, now you need to visualize how to get from Point A, where you are now, to Point B, where you would like to be. Sometimes it is easier to set up a structure for your business if you look at the large picture of your purpose and where you intend to be in the future. Granted your ideas and goals change as you change, but your general purpose will usually remain the same, it just branches out.

Now that you have researched what you want to do, take the time to research what others in your area of interest have already done. Conducting market research will allow you to get a feel for the industry you are entering. It’s important to see what is out there. Look up trade journals and magazines. Really put some effort into getting involved with your career and learning about it. Every career has an abundant amount of resources available and a lot of that information is free. If you see a trade journal or magazine that you like, sign up for their newsletter. This will help keep you updated on industry events and trends.

Reading and researching can be one sided tasks. Sometimes it is easier to learn about your career by actually interacting with others in the field. This can be done on your own time instead of regular business hours thanks to the internet. Now you can find chat groups, users groups, and forums and you are not limited by time zones or borders.

One of my favorite resources is Yahoo Groups at http://groups.yahoo.com/. You can look up any particular subject and find a group where you can discuss some of your career objections. This is an excellent way to network with your peers and experts in the field. It is not uncommon to find a lot of other “newbies” in these groups as well as professionals. The most important thing is to not be afraid to ask questions. If you don’t know what questions to ask then reading over the archives of a group is a great place to start. Groups vary in size and subject so what I suggest is to join a couple to see which ones fit your personal needs.

Another resource you can use is ListServ lists http://www.lsoft.com/catalist.html. Typically you subscribe through your email client to a discussion group within your field of interest. You can also do a search for “listserves” or “user groups” on the internet to pull up a vast amount of sites that list an array of groups. Not all lists are treated equal so again use your own judgment when joining.

I also personally like forum communities. You can often search for “forums” online to find one in your career field. It’s a great opportunity to share your discoveries as well as learn from others. Not to mention you can do several searches within a forum and read old posts. This is a great way to see other member profiles which often reference their personal or business websites. Some forums even have a ‘members’ section that lists all their members profiles. Any profile with a “www” by their name usually has a live link to their site. Be sure to take the time and visit these sites for reference.

When you are visiting other people’s websites in your field, I advise you to check and see if they have a links page. I have found so many great resources through other people’s links pages. Also it helps you get an idea of what sites you can possibly request link exchanges from in the future.

By networking with others and conducting your own market research, you will gain a better sense of direction and get an idea where it is you want to be in the future with your career. If you see a website that you like, bookmark it. Then once you have collected enough information, go back and review your favorites once more. Ask yourself what do you like about it? What information was useful to you? Was the site visually appealing? Was the site easy to navigate? If not, what would you change? What information would you add? Take notes, write your thoughts down and remember… patience plus perseverance, equals purpose.

6 Steps To Great Newsletter Editorial

Content is once again king! The smart newsletter publishers whether they’re in print or online are finally coming to the realization that readers aren’t looking to buying their stuff. They’re looking for solutions.

And the best way to deliver solutions is by delivering information readers can use. It’s also the best way to build trust with those who may eventually want to buy your solutions.

Here’s a tip: The more niche or the focused your solutions, the better. Why? Because the more you can offer solutions that speak directly to a person’s challenge or pain point, the more valuable it is to the reader.

Whether it’s a B2B newsletter that I charged $1,595 for or a $19.95 B2C publication, one thing that always proved true is that the content had to address solutions for a specific audience. The content is what kept them coming back. The content also helped foster a relationship with readers in which they came to trust us for other solutions offered at conferences, seminars, in manuals, reports, books and other “back-end products.”

But it all begins with valuable content. Here are my 6 tips that have helped me and my staff over the years.

6 steps to create great content

Step #1: You must have a killer story idea to begin. I often required our writers/editors to come to the story meeting with the first paragraph written out as they see the story. Often, it wasn’t great at that point, but by discussing the topic we could usually come up with a great idea and if not, we knew then and there we had to come up with a better lead story. It’s important to have the writers come to the story conference with the lead paragraph already written because you want them to really give some thought to how they see that story shaping up.

Step #2: Every article should answer the question: What’s In It For the Reader (WIIFR)? In fact, the lead paragraph will often answer that question. If the answer isn’t in the first paragraph, it should be no farther down than the third or fifth paragraph depending on the length of the article. Every article should have a reason why the writer is saying to the reader, “This is so important that you should not only take the time to read it, but pay me to read it.”

In order to answer that question, the article has to be written for the reader – not for anyone else. Some of the newsletters I published were directed to very specific markets such as credit union CEOs, bank compliance officers, and auto dealers. Not only is each written for a niche industry, but they are written to and for a specific position in that industry. Every article must be written with that person in mind.

Step #3: What can you do to keep your readers’ interest? Every publisher worth the ink or HTML code needed to produce the content is going to make sure he’s doing steps 1 and 2. So what can you do to make your articles stand out from the rest? If your publication and a competitor’s publication are sitting on a desk or coffee table, what are you going to do to make sure the reader picks up yours first – and not put it down right away?! Can you take a contrarian stand? Can you invoke some controversy by pitting two sources against each other? Marketing expert and business coach Jon Goldman (www.BrandLauncher.com) asks: “Where can you zig where the others zag?” What unique angle can you have? Are there unique sources or ideas you can bring into the article?

Step #4: What sources or anecdotes will you use to make the story come alive? A story is only as good as the ideas within the story. These stories within the story often come from other sources or from anecdotes that help paint a picture. For instance, I just finished working with the writers of US News and World Report’s new car review site, and unlike most other car review sites, it’s entirely based on other sources. The articles are packed with terrific car buying information that is brought to life with anecdotes and comments from other reviewers.

Step #5: Create compelling copy. This is often where I see writers, editors and even publishers get lazy. It’s not enough to just put the information together. It’s got to be compelling. It has to grab you and keep hold of you so you find yourself so involved that anything else would be a rude, irritating disruption. Will every story do that? Of course not. But it’s something your writers and editors should strive for every time! Like I often say, it’s an art, not a science and so therefore it should be an art that is constantly practiced. That’s why I always look for talented writers who care about producing great content first. You can teach the subject matter. That will come. The care and dedication needed to produce great content is something you can’t teach – and great content will always win in a competitive market.

Step #6: Write strong, intriguing headlines and subheads. I mention this last for a reason. All the steps in fact are listed in order of how they should be approached. But it’s important to save the headline writing and subheads for last. I don’t know how many times I found the headline in the first paragraph — or worse, it’s buried at the end of the article. A good headline should grab you, intrigue and tell you why it’s so important that you stop everything you’re doing to read the article. Subheads should not be overlooked, either. The subhead is a tool to keep the reader engaged in the article and in some cases, pull the reader into the article so they must include a benefit. They too must answer the question: What’s In it For Me?

Use those 6 steps and you’ll be on your way to delivering great newsletter editorial your readers can use. For more tips and ideas go to http://www.ThePubGuru.com